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Carbon Monoxide Laws

What is carbon monoxide? How can carbon monoxide poisoning be prevented?
Protecting yourself is simple.

Sure, safeguarding your home and family from a threat that you can’t see, smell or taste may sound like a tall order. But if you know the risks and choose the right products, it’s actually pretty easy. That’s where Kidde comes in. Take a look around for information, helpful tips and solutions – everything you need to arm yourself against a silent killer.

The only way to protect your home from CO poisoning is by having a working CO alarm, which must be replaced every seven to 10 years or when you hear the end-of-life warning chirp.


Many cities and states have created safety legislation requiring carbon monoxide alarms or specific types of alarms in various settings. Understanding your local requirements can help you keep your home safe from the dangers of CO poisoning. 


States that have anniversaries this year are: Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Missouri, New York, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming.


Does your CO Alarm Need to be Replaced in 2019?


CO alarms should be replaced every seven to 10 years, and in 2019 it may be time to replace yours. The following states have safety legislation that either came into effect seven years ago or will be going into effect in 2019. If your state is listed, find out how to keep your home safe below.

cosafetystates

Effective January 1, 2012

Requires CO alarms on each floor of newly-constructed one- and two-family dwellings have fuel-burning appliances or an attached garage. Restricted placement within or near the openings to garages, bathrooms, or to furnace rooms.

Denver, Colorado: Effective January 1, 2019

All Group I (rehabilitation centers, group homes, day cares, etc.) and R dwellings (apartment buildings, hotels, motels, etc.) must replace battery-operated CO alarms upon activation of end-of-life with alarms that have a permanent integral 10-year lithium battery.

Effective October 1, 2012/2013

Requires CO alarms in all existing single-family and multifamily dwellings having a fuel-burning appliance or an attached garage upon sale or transfer of property.

Effective October 1, 2012

Requires CO alarms in newly-constructed Group-R and Group-I occupancies containing a fuel-burning appliance or an attached garage. Buildings having an open parking garage or enclosed ventilated parking garages are exempt. CO alarms shall be installed per NFPA 72.


Exemptions to these requirements also extend to occupancies if dwelling units do not contain a fuel-burning appliance or have an attached garage, but are located in a building with a fuel-burning appliance or an attached garage, CO detection is not required if:

  • The sleeping unit or dwelling unit is located more than one story above or below any story that contains a fuel-burning appliance or an attached garage
  • The sleeping unit or dwelling unit is not connected by duct work or ventilation shafts to an attached garage or any room containing a fuel-burning appliance

Effective October 1, 2012

Requires CO alarms in newly-constructed Group-R and Group-I occupancies containing a fuel-burning appliance or an attached garage. Buildings having an open parking garage or enclosed ventilated parking garages are exempt. CO alarms shall be installed per NFPA 72.


Exemptions to these requirements also extend to occupancies if dwelling units do not contain a fuel-burning appliance or have an attached garage, but are located in a building with a fuel-burning appliance or an attached garage, CO detection is not required if:

  • The sleeping unit or dwelling unit is located more than one story above or below any story that contains a fuel-burning appliance or an attached garage 
  • The sleeping unit or dwelling unit is not connected by duct work or ventilation shafts to an attached garage or any room containing a fuel-burning appliance

New York City: Effective November 1, 2004

Requires residential and commercial property owners to install CO alarms within 15 feet of sleeping areas in all homes, apartments, schools, hospitals, and educational facilities that have fossil fuel burning appliances, excluding cooking appliances and gas clothes dryers. Requires that all CO alarms having met or exceeded their stated useful life, be replaced.

Effective January 1, 2012

Requires CO alarms in all newly constructed one- and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories having fuel-burning appliances or attached garages, and when work requiring a permit occurs in such existing dwelling.

Effective July 1, 2005

Requires CO alarms installed in homes upon initial occupancy or upon sale or transfer.


Requires CO alarms to be installed outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms in all newly constructed one- and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories and when work requiring a permit occurs in such existing dwelling.

Effective September 1, 2012

Requires CO alarms in existing apartment buildings, hotels/motels, one- and two-family dwellings intended to be leased/rented, boarding houses, dormitories, long term care facilities, assisted living facilities. CO alarms shall be installed in either a common area where the general public has access OR in all rooms used for sleeping that adjoin, are directly below, are directly above or which contain permanently installed fuel-burning appliances and equipment.

Effective June 1, 2012.

Effective January 1, 2011.

Requires CO alarms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories having fuel burning appliances or attached garages, and when work requiring a permit occurs in such existing dwelling.


Effective June 1, 2012.

The 2012 IBC requires CO alarms are required in newly constructed Group-R and Group-I occupancies containing a fuel-burning appliance or an attached garage. Buildings having an open parking garage or enclosed ventilated parking garages are exempt. CO alarms shall be installed per NFPA 72.

Effective June 1, 2012.

The 2012 IFC requires existing Group-R and Group-I occupancies to follow the same requirements of the 2012 IBC for newly constructed occupancies. CO alarms shall be installed per NFPA 72. Exemptions to these requirements also extend to occupancies if dwelling units do not contain a fuel-burning appliance or have an attached garage, but are located in a building with a fuel-burning appliance or an attached garage, CO detection is not required if:

  • The sleeping unit or dwelling unit is located more than one story above or below any story that contains a fuel-burning appliance or an attached garage
  • The sleeping unit or dwelling unit is not connected by duct work or ventilation shafts to an attached garage or any room containing a fuel-burning appliance
Kidde-Safety-Laws-Map

Select your state below to find out the latest fire safety laws and legislation

Don't see your state listed above? Select your state below to see its associated CO safety laws and legislation.

Alabama

Effective October 7. 2011.
Requires CO alarms to be installed outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories having fuel burning appliances or attached garages and when work requiring a permit occurs in such existing dwelling.

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Alaska

Effective January 1, 2004.
Required in all residential structures with fossil fuel heating appliances, attached garages or enclosed parking.

Anchorage:

Effective March 2004.
Required in new and existing single and multifamily dwellings.

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Arizona

Effective January 1, 2013.
Requires CO alarms to be installed outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories having fuel burning appliances or attached garagesand when work requiring a permit occurs in such existing dwelling.

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California

Effective January 1, 2017.
Requires CO alarms in all existing hotels and motels having a fuel burning appliance or attached garage.


Effective January 1, 2016.
Requires CO alarms in all existing hotels and motels having a fuel burning appliance or attached garage.


Effective January 1, 2013.
Requires CO alarms in all existing multifamily dwellings having a fuel burning appliance or attached garage.


Effective July 1, 2011.
Requires CO alarms in all existing single family dwellings having a fuel burning appliance or attached garage.


Effective Jan. 1, 2011.
Requires CO alarms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories, and R-1, R-2, R-3, I-1 dwellings having a fuel burning appliance or attached garage, and when work requiring a permit over $1,000 occurs in such existing dwellings.


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Delaware

Effective January 1, 2017.
Requires CO alarms to be installed outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories having fuel burning appliances or attached garages and when work requiring a permit occurs in such existing dwellings.

Wilmington:

Required in all residential dwellings and mixed use occupancies, to include hotels.


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Florida

Effective July 1, 2008.
Requires CO alarms in the new construction of every building that includes a fossil-fuel-burning heater or appliance, fireplace, or an attached garage. CO alarms must be installed within 10 feet of each room used for sleeping. In public lodging establishments, every enclosed space or room that contains a boiler located in any portion of the establishment that contains sleeping rooms must install CO sensor devices. The CO sensor devices must be integrated with the public lodging establishment's fire detection system.

Hialeah:

Effective December 1, 2006.
Required in all residential units.


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Georgia

Effective January 1, 2009.
All newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories, upon initial permit are required to install CO alarms in the vicinity of bedrooms.


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Hawaii

None at this time.


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Idaho

Effective January 1, 2011.
Requires CO alarms to be installed outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories having fuel burning appliances or attached garagesand when work requiring a permit occurs in such existing dwelling.

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Illinois

Effective January 1, 2007.
Requires all residential dwelling to install at least one CO alarm within 15 feet of sleeping areas.

Chicago:

Effective 1996.
Requires all residential structures with fossil fuel burning appliances.

Frankfort:

All newly constructed dwellings

Lake Forest:

All newly constructed and renovated dwellings equipped fuel burning appliances or an attached garage.

Lincolnwood:

All newly constructed dwellings, when a fuel burning furnace is newly installed or replace or upon dwelling renovations exceeding $10,000.


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Indiana

Indianapolis/Marion County:

Effective January 1, 2017.
Requires CO alarms to be installed outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories having fuel burning appliances or attached garages and when work requiring a permit occurs in such existing dwellings.


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Iowa

Effective July 1, 2018.
Requires CO alarms in all new and existing single-family and multi-family dwellings, including rental dwellings, with fossil-fuel burning appliances and/or attached garage.


Effective January 1, 2010.
Requires CO alarms to be installed outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories having fuel burning appliances or attached garagesand when work requiring a permit occurs in such existing dwelling."


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Kansas

None at this time.


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Kentucky

Effective June 1, 2011.
All newly constructed one and two family dwellings, townhouses, R-2, R-3 and R-4 occupancies within which fuel-fired appliances are installed and in dwelling units that have attached garages. Where work requiring a permit occurs within existing one and two family dwellings, townhouses, and R-2, R-3 and R-4 occupancies equipped with fuel-fired appliance(s) or an existing dwelling that has attached garage(s), the permitting authority shall inform the homeowner/occupant that carbon monoxide alarms are required to be installed. CO alarms shall be installed outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms.


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Louisiana

Effective January 1, 2011.
Requires CO alarms to be installed outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories having fuel burning appliances or attached garagesand when work requiring a permit occurs in such existing dwelling.


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Maine

Effective September 17, 2009.
Requires carbon monoxide alarms to be installed in single- and multi-family dwellings. The alarms are required in all newly constructed single- and multi-family dwellings, existing multi-family dwellings, existing single-family dwellings upon sale only, and all rental dwellings. Only Hardwire with battery back up alarms or plug-in with battery back alarms are permitted to be used in compliance. Requires CO alarms to be installed outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms.


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Massachusetts

Effective March 31, 2006.
Requires residential properties that contain fossil fuel burning equipment or contain enclosed parking to install CO alarms on every level of the home and within 10 feet of sleeping areas. Additionally, upon the sale or transfer of a dwelling, the seller must certify compliance with the requirements of the law. Combination alarms must incorporate voice warning.

Abington:

Required in newly constructed dwellings and when existing dwellings are sold or transferred.

Marshfield:

Required in dwellings when a fuel burning appliance or power vent system is replaced or first installed.

Mashpee:

Required in newly constructed or renovated dwellings or upon the sale, transfer or refinancing of the dwelling.


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Michigan

Effective January 1, 2010.
Requires CO alarms to be installed outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories having fuel burning appliances or attached garages and when work requiring a permit occurs in such existing. 


All newly constructed hotels built after December 1, 2009 are required to install CO alarms near fossil fuel burning equipment, excluding fireplaces. CO alarms may be powered by battery, plug-in with or without battery backup, or hardwired with battery back-up.

Pontiac:

Required in owner occupied and renter occupied units. 

Contact for more info


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Minnesota

Effective August 1, 2009.
All other multifamily or apartment dwelling units shall be provided with approved CO alarms.


Effective August 1, 2008.
All existing single family homes shall be equipped with approved carbon monoxide alarms.


Effective January 1, 2007.
All newly constructed single family homes and multifamily dwelling units for which building permits are issued shall be provided with approved carbon monoxide alarms.

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Mississippi

CODE IS AT LOCALLY ADOPTED LEVEL ONLY - NOT ENFORCED STATEWIDE

Effective January 1, 2013.
Requires CO alarms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories having fuel burning appliances or attached.


Effective January 1, 2013.
Requires CO alarms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories having fuel burning appliances or attached.


Effective January 1, 2013.
Requires CO alarms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories having fuel burning appliances or attached garages, and when work requiring a permit occurs in such existing dwelling.


Effective January 1, 2013.
The 2012 IBC requires CO alarms are required in newly constructed Group-R and Group-I occupancies containing a fuel-burning appliance or an attached garage. Buildings having an open parking garage or enclosed ventilated parking garages are exempt. CO alarms shall be installed per NFPA 72.


Effective January 1, 2013.
The 2012 IFC requires existing Group-R and Group-I occupancies to follow the same requirements of the 2012 IBC for newly constructed occupancies. CO alarms shall be installed per NFPA 72.
Exemptions to these requirements also extend to occupancies if dwelling units do not contain a fuel-burning appliance or have an attached garage, but are located in a building with a fuel-burning appliance or an attached garage, CO detection is not required if:

  • The sleeping unit or dwelling unit is located more than one story above or below any story that contains a fuel-burning appliance or an attached garage
  • The sleeping unit or dwelling unit is not connected by duct work or ventilation shafts to an attached garage or any room containing a fuel-burning appliance.

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Montana

Effective October 1, 2009.
Each dwelling unit controlled/ rented by a landlord shall install CO alarms in accordance to the rules adopted by the Department of Labor. All non-landlord controlled dwellings and those not required to have CO alarms installed must only disclose at the time of sale or transfer whether the dwelling for sale is or is not equipped with a CO alarm.

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Nebraska

Effective July 1, 2011.
Requires CO alarms to be installed outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories having fuel burning appliances or attached garages and when work requiring a permit occurs in such existing.
"Effective January 1, 2017. Requires CO alarms in existing homes."

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Nevada

Effective January 1, 2017.
Requires CO alarms to be installed outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories having fuel burning appliances or attached garages and when work requiring a permit occurs in such existing dwellings.

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New Hampshire

Effective January 1, 2010.
All single-family dwellings, and newly constructed or renovated multifamily buildings. One CO alarm per level of the dwelling and in each common stairway and in each common hallway of a multi-unit dwelling.

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New Jersey

Effective April 7, 2003.
Requires residential structures that use fossil fuel burning appliances to install CO alarms upon initial occupancy or upon sale or transfer.

Fort Lee:

Required in all newly constructed dwellings and when existing dwellings are sold or transferred.

Village of South Orange:

Required in all new and existing residential dwellings.

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New Mexico

Effective July 1, 2011.
Requires CO alarms to be installed outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories having fuel burning appliances or attached garages and when work requiring a permit occurs in such existing.

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North Carolina

Effective January 1, 2010.
Requires CO alarms to be installed outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories and when work requiring a permit occurs in such existing dwelling.
Requires rental properties that have gas-burning heaters, appliances, fireplaces and attached garages to install CO alarms. One CO alarm must be installed per rental unit, per level of the unit and located in accordance to NFPA 720 or the manufacturer's instructions. Vacation rental properties are exempt from the law.

Mecklenburg County:

Required in all residential dwellings having a fuel burning appliance or an attached garage.

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North Dakota

Effective January 1, 2011.
All newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories, upon initial permit are required to install CO alarms in the vicinity of bedrooms.

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Ohio

Effective January 1, 2013.
Requires CO alarms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories having fuel burning appliances or attached garages, and when work requiring a permit occurs in such existing dwelling.

Brooklyn:

Required in newly constructed single and multifamily dwellings.

Cleveland:

Required in all new and existing rental dwelling units.

Eastlake:

Required in all new and renovated dwellings having a fuel burning appliance.

Lakewood:

Required in all rental dwellings.

Macedonia:

Required in all newly constructed dwellings.

Maple Heights:

Required in all newly constructed dwellings.

Northfield:

Required in all newly constructed dwellings.

Parma:

Required in all newly constructed single and multifamily dwellings having a fuel burning appliance, or upon the sale or transfer of existing dwellings having a fuel burning appliance.

Richmond Heights:

Required in all new and existing residential dwellings.

Westfield Center:

Required in all new and existing residential dwellings.

Willowick:

Required in all new residential dwellings having a fuel burning appliance, or upon the sale or transfer of existing dwellings.

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Oklahoma

Effective January 1, 2011.
Requires CO alarms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories having fuel burning appliances or attached garages, and when work requiring a permit occurs in such existing dwelling.

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Oregon

Effective April 1, 2011.
The Lofgren and Zander Memorial Act requires CO alarms installed in newly constructed single and multifamily dwellings and existing single and multifamily dwellings which are sold or transferred. CO alarms installed in sleeping areas.


Effective July 1, 2010.
CO alarms are required in all rental dwellings in sleeping areas.

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Pennsylvania

Effective January 1, 2010.
Requires CO alarms to be installed outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories having fuel burning appliances or attached garages and when work requiring a permit occurs in such existing dwelling.


Effective December 18, 2013
Requires CO alarms to be installed outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms and fossil-fuel burning heater or fireplace in all multi-family dwelling units. Impacted homeowners have 18 months to comply with new law, starting from Dec 18, 2013.
Rental unit owners must ensure a working CO alarm upon the occupancy of a new tenant.

Philadelphia:

Effective January 1, 2009.
Requires CO alarms in all new and existing one- and two-family homes and residential care/assisted living facilities with not more than 16 residents, excluding staff. CO alarms are to be installed within15 feet from bedrooms/ sleeping areas.

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Rhode Island

Effective January 1, 2002.
Requires the installation of CO alarms in all one, two and three family dwellings, hotels, dormitories, apartment buildings, and daycares. CO alarms may be battery, plug-in with battery backup, hardwired or wireless CO, except in new construction where the alarms may only be hardwired or wireless. CO alarms shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 720. Wireless CO alarms must be listed by UL.


Effective September 1, 2013.
The 2012 IBC requires CO alarms are required in newly constructed Group-R and Group-I occupancies containing a fuel-burning appliance or an attached garage. Buildings having an open parking garage or enclosed ventilated parking garages are exempt. CO alarms shall be installed per NFPA 72.
Exemptions to these requirements also extend to occupancies if dwelling units do not contain a fuel-burning appliance or have an attached garage, but are located in a building with a fuel-burning appliance or an attached garage, CO detection is not required if:

  • The sleeping unit or dwelling unit is located more than one story above or below any story that contains a fuel-burning appliance or an attached garage
  • The sleeping unit or dwelling unit is not connected by duct work or ventilation shafts to an attached garage or any room containing a fuel-burning appliance.

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South Carolina

Effective July 1, 2013,
South Carolina has adopted the 2012 IBC which requires CO alarms are required in newly constructed Group-R and Group-I occupancies containing a fuel-burning appliance or an attached garage. Buildings having an open parking garage or enclosed ventilated parking garages are exempt. CO alarms shall be installed per NFPA 72.


Effective July 1, 2013,
South Carolina has adopted the 2012 IFC which requires existing Group-R and Group-I occupancies to follow the same requirements of the 2012 IBC for newly constructed occupancies. CO alarms shall be installed per NFPA 72. Exemptions to these requirements also extend to occupancies if dwelling units do not contain a fuel-burning appliance or do not have an attached garage, but are located in a building with a fuel-burning appliance or an attached garage, CO detection is not required if:

  • The sleeping unit or dwelling unit is located more than one story above or below any story that contains a fuel-burning appliance or an attached garage

  • The sleeping unit or dwelling unit is not connected by duct work or ventilation shafts to an attached garage or any room containing a fuel-burning appliance

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Tennessee

Effective October 1, 2010.
Requires CO alarms to be installed outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories having fuel burning appliances or attached garages and when work requiring a permit occurs in such existing dwelling.

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Texas

Effective January 1, 2017.
Requires CO alarms to be installed in accordance with NFPA 720 in all Group I occpancies (assisted living homes, day cares, hospitals, etc.)

Bellaire:

Required in all newly constructed residential dwellings.

Houston:

Effective January 1, 2017.
Requires CO alarms to be installed in accordance with NFPA 720 in all Group I occpancies (assisted living homes, day cares, hospitals, etc.)

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Utah

Effective November 1, 2006.
Requires CO alarms to be installed outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories and when work requiring a permit occurs in such existing dwelling.


Effective July 1, 2011.
Requires CO alarms in new and existing R2, R3, R4 and I-1 occupancies containing a fuel-burning appliance or an attached garage on each habitalble level or sleeping unit installed per NFPA 720.

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Virginia

Effective January 1, 2011.
Requires CO alarms to be installed outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories having fuel burning appliances or attached garages and when work requiring a permit occurs in such existing dwelling.
Newly constructed Group R occupancies containing fuel-fired appliances or attached to a Group U private parking garage are required to install CO alarms. CO alarms are to be installed outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms.

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Washington

Effective January 1, 2013.
Requires CO alarms in existing R-1, R-2, R-3.


Effective July 1, 2011
Requires CO alarms in existing owner-occupied single-family dwellings, condos and mobile homes when the dwelling is offered for sale.


Effective January 1, 2011.
Requires CO alarms to be installed outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings, town homes not more than three stories and R-1, R-2, R-3 occupancies, and when work requiring a permit occurs in such existing dwelling.

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Wisconsin

Effective February 1, 2011.
Requires CO alarms be installed outside sleeping areas in all new and existing one and two family dwellings having a fuel burning appliance or attached garage.


Effective April 1, 2010.
CO alarms are required in existing multi-family dwellings equipped with a fuel burning appliance or attached garage and shall be installed within 15 feet of each sleeping area, in the basement if there is a fuel burning appliance, be installed not more than 75 feet from a fuel burning appliance in each room not used as a sleeping area, and in each hallway leading from a unit that has a fuel burning appliance, in a location that is within 75 feet from the unit.


Effective October 1, 2008.
CO alarms are required in new multi-family dwellings equipped with a fuel burning appliance or attached garage and shall be installed within 15 feet of each sleeping area, in the basement if there is a fuel burning appliance, be installed not more than 75 feet from a fuel burning appliance in each room not used as a sleeping area, and in each hallway leading from a unit that has a fuel burning appliance, in a location that is within 75 feet from the unit.

Brown Dear:

Required in all newly constructed and existing residential dwellings.

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